Heritage listings apply to a ‘place’. 'Place' means site, area, land, landscape, building or other work, group of buildings or other works, and may include components, contents, spaces and views (refer to the Burra Charter for further details).
Therefore listed places can include buildings and places such as precincts or heritage areas, sites which may include buildings which have been demolished, limestone features and landscapes.
There are a number of different types of heritage listing, each with different implications. These include:
1. World Heritage listing
Identified by UNESCO, very few places meet the threshold for world heritage listing. Fremantle Prison is the only site in Perth currently listed, and one of only four in Western Australia.
2. National Heritage listing
These fall under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act and are administered by the federal department of Environment. Only Fremantle Prison is in this category within the City of Fremantle.
3. State Register of Heritage Places
These places fall under the Heritage Act 2018. They are administered by the state Department of Planning, Lands and Heritage, and the Heritage Council of Western Australia. A number of places in Fremantle are on the state register, including Arthur Head, the West End and over 280 other individual sites.
4. Aboriginal sites and heritage places
Under the Aboriginal Heritage Act 1972 these places are administered by the state Department of Planning, Lands and Heritage. Registered sites in Fremantle include the Swan River (Derbarl Yerrigan) and Cantonment Hill. Others are under investigation or have other significance such as Manjaree (Arthur Head) and The Roundhouse.
5. Local Heritage List
Under the City of Fremantle Planning Scheme (and planning regulations), these places are administered by the City of Fremantle. This list currently includes around 2,500 sites, with special protection under the planning scheme.
6. Local Heritage Areas
These also fall under the City of Fremantle Planning Scheme (and regulations) and are administered by the City of Fremantle. There are currently 23 heritage areas including Central Fremantle, North Fremantle, South Fremantle and Hilton.
7. Local Heritage Survey
This is created under the Heritage Act 2018 and administered by the City of Fremantle. This list is a database which identifies places of heritage significance and interest within the City, not just those places listed above which have statutory/legal protection.
All places on the Heritage List are on the Local Heritage Survey but not all places on the survey are also on the list. The Local Heritage Survey used to be called the Municipal Heritage Inventory (or MHI).